De-colonize gender healers

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  • AGNOCIDE: or Agnodike was the earliest historical, and likely apocryphal, midwife mentioned among the ancient Greeks. She was a native of Athens, where it was forbidden by law for women or slaves to study medicine. According, however, to Hyginus, on whose authority alone the whole story rests, Agnodice disguised herself in men's clothing, and attended the lectures of a physician named Hierophilus, devoting herself chiefly to the study of midwifery and gynaecology
  • TOYPURINA (1760-1799) was a Tongva/Gabrieliño Native American medicine woman who opposed the rule of colonization by Spanish missionaries in California, and led an unsuccessful rebellion against them.
  • BETSY THUNDER HoChunk Medicine Woman, Wisconsin, 1913. From the book Women's Wisconsin, about womens diverse roles as farmers, chiefs, and medicine women. In the 1700s the chief was a woman, Hopoekaw, who guided the HoChunk through the French colonization of Wisconsin and the later American intrusion.
  • JACQUELINE FELICIE (1290-d.after 1322) We know of this French healer due to the records from her trial when she was brought before the Inquisition by male physicians who felt threatened by her success. Felicie was well-liked, only accepting payment for her services if successful; she was also an advocate for women treating women. She was tried & found guilty of practicing medicine w/o a license & was forbidden from practicing medicine & excommunicated. She disappears from the records after that.